In today’s digital age, where the internet is an integral part of our daily lives, understanding the basic elements of web navigation is essential. One such fundamental element is the URL, or Uniform Resource Locator. URLs serve as the digital addresses of web resources, enabling us to access websites, documents, images, and more. This article explores what URLs are and delves into the various types that exist in the ever-expanding online landscape.

What is a URL?

A URL, often pronounced as “you-are-ell,” is a concise string of characters that represents the address of a resource on the internet. It functions as a bridge between the user and the web server, allowing users to access specific web pages or files with ease. Therefore, URLs consist of several components, each serving a unique purpose.

The Anatomy of a URL

Scheme: The scheme, also known as the protocol, specifies the method used to access the resource. Common schemes include “http://” for standard web pages and “https://” for secure pages. Other schemes like “ftp://” (File Transfer Protocol) and “mailto://” (for email addresses) serve specialized purposes.


The domain, sometimes referred to as the hostname, identifies the server where the resource is located. Domain names are typically human-readable and can be as short as a single character or as long as 63 characters.


The port number, if specified, identifies the specific port on the server to which the client should connect. Most URLs omit this component, as browsers use default ports for common protocols (e.g., 80 for HTTP and 443 for HTTPS).


The path segment specifies the location of the resource within the server’s directory structure. Therefore, it is used to navigate to specific files or directories on the server.


The query component allows users to pass parameters to the resource, typically in the form of key-value pairs. It’s used to refine or customize the request.


The fragment, often introduced by a “#” symbol, indicates a specific section or anchor within the resource. Hence, it is commonly used in long web pages to direct users to a particular section.

Types of URLs

Absolute URL

An absolute URL provides the complete path to a resource, starting from the root directory of the server. It includes the scheme, domain, port (if needed), path, query, and fragment. For example, “https://www.example.com:8080/page?param=value#section.”

Relative URL

Unlike absolute URLs, relative URLs specify the path to a resource relative to the current page’s location. Moreover, they do not include the scheme or domain. This type is often used for internal links within a website. For instance, “../images/pic.jpg” directs the browser to an image file in the parent directory.

Protocol-relative URL

Protocol-relative URLs begin with two slashes “//” and inherit the current protocol (HTTP or HTTPS) of the referring page. This allows resources to be loaded securely, regardless of the referring page’s protocol. For example, “//cdn.example.com/script.js” will use the same protocol as the referring page.

Mailto URL

Mailto URLs enable links to open the user’s default email client with a pre-filled email address, enhancing user experience. They start with “mailto:” followed by the email address. For instance, “mailto:contact@example.com” opens the user’s email software with the recipient’s address pre-filled.


In conclusion, understanding URLs is pivotal to efficient web navigation. These digital addresses serve as the foundation for accessing and sharing web resources across the internet. Whether you encounter absolute, relative, protocol-relative, or mailto URLs, each type has its specific use case and importance in the world of online communication. Mastering the intricacies of URLs empowers users to harness the full potential of the internet, making it a more accessible and convenient tool for information retrieval and communication. So, the next time you browse the web, take a moment to appreciate the role URLs play in making your online experience seamless and informative.

By Daniel